Epidural Stimulation

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Authors: Dominik Zbogar and Sharon Jang | Reviewer: Susan Harkema | Published: 14 February 2022 | Updated: ~

Key Points

  • Epidural stimulation is a treatment that sends electrical signals to the spinal cord.
  • Epidural stimulation requires a surgical procedure to implant electrodes close to the spinal cord.
  • One of the ways epidural stimulation works is by replacing the signals that would normally be sent from the brain to the spinal cord before spinal cord injury (SCI).
  • Epidural stimulation affects numerous systems. Stimulation aimed at activating leg muscles may potentially also affect bowel, bladder, sexual, and cardiovascular function.
  • Studies of epidural stimulation in spinal cord injury (SCI) generally do not include a comparison group without stimulation. The benefits of epidural stimulation that have been reported have been in small numbers of participants. So, while reports thus far are encouraging, more research is necessary.
  • Because it is in the research and development phase, epidural stimulation for spinal cord injury is not part of standard care nor is it a readily available treatment.

Neuromodulation is a general term for any treatment that changes or improves nerve pathways. Different types of neuromodulation can work at different sites along the nervous system (e.g., brain, nerves, spinal cord) and may or may not be invasive (i.e., involve surgery). Epidural stimulation (also known as epidural spinal cord stimulation or direct spinal cord stimulation) is a type of invasive neuromodulation that stimulates the spinal cord using electrical currents. This is done by placing an electrode on the dura (the protective covering around the spinal cord).

To read more about other types of neuromodulation used in SCI, access these SCIRE Community articles: Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS), sacral nerve stimulation, and intrathecal Baclofen.

Watch our neuromodulation series videos! Our experts explain experimental to more commonplace applications, and individuals with SCI describe how neuromodulation has affected their lives.

 

 

 

What is “an Epidural”?

Epi- is a prefix and means “upon”, and the dura (full name: dura mater) is a protective covering of the spinal cord. So epidural means “upon the dura”, and in the context of epidural stimulation, this is where the electrodes that stimulate the spinal cord are placed. Yes, it is also possible to have sub-dural (under the dura) or endo-dural (within the dura) electrode placement. And, there are more layers between the dura and the spinal cord, not to mention the spinal cord itself where electrodes could be placed in what is called intraspinal microstimulation. The benefit of being beneath the dura and closer to the spinal cord is that there is a more direct stimulation. Having the electrode closer to the spinal cord allows more precision with the signal going more directly to the neurons.

The drawback is that more complications can arise with closer placement because the electrodes are in the spinal cord tissue. Such placement is currently rare, experimental, or non-existent but that will change as the technology advances. Intraspinal microstimulation has been tested in animal models and is in the process of being translated to humans.

You are probably familiar with the term “epidural” already, as it is often mentioned in relation to childbirth. If a new mother says she had an epidural, what she usually means is that she had pain medication injected into the epidural space for the purpose of managing pain during birth.

We specifically discuss epidural spinal cord stimulation in this article. Spinal cord stimulation can also be applied transcutaneously. This type of spinal cord stimulation is non-invasive as the stimulating electrodes are placed on the skin. With transcutaneous stimulation, the signal has to travel a greater distance through muscle, fat, and other tissues, which means the ability to be precise with stimulation is hampered. However, it does allow for more flexibility in electrode placement and does not require surgery. There is research published or underway investigating the impact of transcutaneous stimulation in some of the areas discussed above, including hand, leg, and cardiovascular function.

Normally, input from your senses travels in the form of electrical signals through the nerves, up the spinal cord, and reaches the brain. The brain then tells the muscles or organs what to do by sending electrical signals back down the spinal cord. After a spinal cord injury, this pathway is disrupted, preventing electrical signals from traveling below the level of injury to reach where they need to go. However, the nerves, muscles, and organs can still respond below the injury to electrical signals.

Epidural stimulation works by helping the network of nerves in the spinal cord below the injury function better and take advantage of any leftover signals from the spinal cord. To do so, the stimulation must be fine-tuned to make sure the amount of stimulation is optimal for each person and a specific function, such as moving the legs.

Recent studies of the role of epidural stimulation on standing and walking have noted unexpected beneficial changes in some participants’ bowel, bladder, sexual, and temperature regulation function This highlights both the potential for epidural stimulation to improve quality of life in multiple ways and that much research remains to be done to understand how epidural stimulation affects the body.


There may still be spared connections in the spinal cord with a complete injury.

How can someone with a complete injury regain movement control with epidural stimulation?

Being assessed with a complete injury implies that there is no spared function below the injury. However, scientists are finding that this may not be the case. Studies have found that even with a complete loss of sensory and motor function, there may be some inactive connections that are still intact across the injury site. These remaining pathways may be important for regaining movement or other functions. Another hypothesis is that epidural stimulation in combination with training may encourage stronger connections across the level of injury. Although these pathways may provide some substitution for the injured ones, they are not as effective as non-injured pathways across the injury level.

When it is decided that an individual will receive epidural stimulation, a health professional, such as a neurosurgeon, will perform an assessment of the spinal cord using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the best place to implant the electrodes.

In most of the studies mentioned in this article, the electrodes were placed between the T9-L1 levels, though researchers are investigating the impact of epidural stimulation on hand function.


Xray image of wires connecting power and signal to electrodes (red circle) placed on a spinal cord.

There are two possible procedures. One approach is to have two surgeries. During the initial surgery, a hollow needle is inserted through the skin into the epidural space, guided using fluoroscopy, a type of X-ray that allows the surgeon to see where the needle is in real time. Potential spots on the spinal cord are tested using a stimulator. A clinician will look to see if stimulation over those areas of the spinal cord leads to a desired response. Once found, the electrode array is properly positioned over the dura and the surgery is completed. This begins a trial period where the response to epidural stimulation is monitored. During this time the electrode array is attached to an electrical generator and power supply, which is worn on a belt outside of the body. When it is shown that things are working as desired, the generator is implanted underneath the skin in the abdomen or buttocks. The generator can be rechargeable or non-rechargeable. A remote control allows one to turn the generator on or off and control the frequency and intensity of stimulation.

The second method is to only have one surgery and no trial period. This is possible due to increased knowledge in how to stimulate the spinal cord. Soon after surgery, the individual will be taught how and when to use the epidural stimulation system at home. If needed, the frequency (how often) and intensity (how strong) of the stimulation will be adjusted at follow-up appointments with the physician. In other cases, many practice sessions of learning the right way to stimulate may be needed before a person can stimulate at home.

If the epidural stimulation is used for leg control, movement training, standing, and stepping will be required to learn how to coordinate and control movement during stimulation. This is required for the recovery of voluntary movements, standing and/or walking.

Epidural stimulation can be used in all people with SCI, regardless of the level or completeness of injury. However, certain situations can make it an unsafe treatment in some. It is important to speak to a health professional about your health history before beginning any new treatment.

Epidural stimulation should not be used in the following situations:

  • By people with implanted medical devices like cardiac pacemakers
  • By people who are unable to follow instructions or provide accurate feedback
  • By people with an active infection
  • By people with psychological or psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse)
  • By people who are unable to form clots (anticoagulopathy)
  • Near areas of spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal)

Epidural stimulation should be used with caution in the following situations:

  • By children or pregnant women
  • By people who require frequent imaging tests like ultrasound or MRI (some epidural stimulation systems are compatible)
  • By people using anticoagulant medications (blood thinners)

Epidural stimulation is generally well-tolerated, but there is a risk of experiencing negative effects.

The most common risks and side effects of epidural stimulation include:

  • Technical difficulties with equipment, such as malfunction or shifting of the electrodes that may require surgery to fix
  • Unpleasant sensations of jolting, tingling, burning, stinging, etc. (from improper remote settings)

Other less common risks and side effects of epidural stimulation include:

  • Damage to the nervous system
  • Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid
  • Increased pain or discomfort
  • Broken bones
  • Masses/lumps growing around the site of the implanted electrode

Risks specific to the surgery which involves the removal of part of the vertebral bone (laminectomy) include:

  • bleeding and/or infection at the surgical site
  • spinal deformity and instability

Proper training on how to use the equipment and using the stimulation according to the directions of your health provider can help decrease the risks of experiencing these side effects.

Neuromodulation methods to manage bladder function have usually involved stimulation of the sacral nerves (which are outside of the spinal cord), not with epidural spinal cord stimulation. This is reflected in the fact that almost no research exists regarding the effects of epidural stimulation on bowel and bladder function in the previous century.

New information on epidural stimulation relating to bladder function is coming. In the last several years, several studies (weak evidence) from a very small group of participants of participants (who were AIS A or B) have found consistent improvements in bladder function. Participants in these reports were fitted with epidural stimulators for reactivation of paralyzed leg muscles for walking and reported additional benefits of improvements in bladder and/or bowel function. However, other studies have shown small changes to bladder function and no changes to bowel function. Negative changes, such as decreased control over the bladder, have even been noticed by some participants in another study. These findings suggest that epidural stimulation may improve quality of life by safely increasing the required time between catheterizations. Fewer catheterizations and reduced pressure in the bladder would preserve lower and upper urinary tract health. More research is required, especially with respect to bowel function. It must be noted that walk training alone has been shown to improve bladder and bowel function. Epidural stimulation may provide additional improvement to bladder function in comparison to walk training alone. Neuromodulation methods to manage bladder function have usually involved stimulation of the sacral nerves (which are outside of the spinal cord), not with epidural spinal cord stimulation. This is reflected in the fact that almost no research exists regarding the effects of epidural stimulation on bowel and bladder function in the previous century.

For more information, visit our pages on Bowel and Bladder Changes After SCI!

Why does walk/stand training alone have a beneficial effect on bladder, bowel, and sexual function?

Relationships between the leg movement and nerves in the low back regions have been identified.

Some evidence suggests that walk/step training alone can create improvements on bladder/bowel function. Researchers hypothesize that the sensory information created through walking or standing provides stimulation to the nerves in the low back region, which contains the nerves to stimulate bowel, bladder, and sexual function. Research has shown that bending and straightening the legs can been enhanced by how full the bladder is and the voiding of urine.

One of the consequences of SCI is the loss of muscle mass below the injury and a tendency to accumulate fat inside the abdomen (abdominal fat or visceral fat) and under the skin (subcutaneous fat). These changes and lower physical activity after SCI increase the risk for several diseases.

A single (weak-evidence) study measured body composition in four young males with complete injuries. Participants underwent 80 sessions of stand and step training without epidural stimulation, followed by another 160 sessions of stand/step training with epidural stimulation. This involved one hour of standing and one hour of stepping five days a week. After all training was complete, all four participants had a small reduction in their body fat, and all participants but one experienced an increase in their fat free body mass (i.e., the weight of their bones, muscles, organs, and water in the body) in comparison to their initial values prior to stimulation. While all participants experienced a reduction of fat, the amount of fat loss was minimal, ranging from 0.8 to 2.4 kg over a period of a year.

The first use of epidural stimulation was as a treatment for chronic pain in the 1960s. Since then, it has been widely used for chronic pain management in persons without SCI. However, it is important to recognize that the chronic pain experienced by those without SCI is different from the chronic neuropathic pain experienced after SCI. This may explain, to some extent, why epidural stimulation has not been as successful in pain treatment for SCI. The mechanism by which electrical stimulation of the spinal cord can help with pain relief is unclear. Some research suggests that special nerve cells that block pain signals to the brain may be activated by epidural stimulation.

There are a few studies focused on the role of epidural stimulation in managing pain after SCI. A number of other studies included a mix of different people with and without SCI. Because chronic neuropathic pain after SCI may not be the same as the chronic pain others experience, studies that do not separate mixed groups raise questions about the validity of findings. The number of individuals with SCI in these studies is often small, most were published in the 1980s and 1990s and so are quite dated, and the research is classified as weak evidence.

The results of this body of research show that some people may receive some pain reduction. Those who saw the most reduction in pain were individuals with an incomplete SCI. Also, satisfaction with pain reduction drops off over time. One study showed only 18% were satisfied 3 years after implantation. A different study looking at the long-term use of epidural stimulation for pain reduction found seven of nine individuals stopped using this method.

In the only recent study in this area, one woman with complete paraplegia (weak evidence) experienced a reduction in neuropathic pain frequency and intensity, and a reduction in average pain from 7 to 4 out of 10, with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst imaginable pain. This improvement remained up to three months later after implantation of the epidural stimulation device.

It should be noted that the studies for pain place electrodes in different parts of the spinal cord compared to the more recent studies for voluntary movement, standing and stepping.

Refer to our article on Pain After SCI for more information!

Using epidural stimulation to improve respiratory function is useful because it contracts the diaphragm and other muscles that help with breathing. Also, these muscles are stimulated in a way that imitates a natural pattern of breathing, reducing muscle fatigue. More common methods of improving respiratory function do not use epidural stimulation, but rather, directly stimulate the nerves that innervate the respiratory muscles. While such methods significantly improve quality of life and function in numerous ways, they are not without issues, including muscle fatigue from directly stimulating the nerves.

To date, most research into using epidural stimulation to improve respiratory function has been in animals. Recently, research has been done in humans and weak evidence suggests that epidural stimulation may:

  • help produce a cough strong enough to clear secretions independently.
  • reduce frequency of respiratory tract infections.
  • reduce the time required caregiver support.
  • help individuals project their voice better and communicate more effectively.

Long term use of epidural stimulation shows that improvements remain over years and that minimal supervision is needed, making it suitable for use in the community.

Refer to our article on Respiratory Changes After SCI for more information!

The impact of epidural stimulation on sexual function has been a secondary focus in research studies looking at standing and walking. Currently, there are reports from one male and two females.

After a training program of walk training with epidural stimulation, one young adult male reported stronger, more frequent erections and the ability to reach full orgasm occasionally, which was not possible before epidural stimulation. However, this study looked at effects of walk training and epidural stimulation together, which took place after several months of walk training without stimulation. Because the researchers did not describe what the individual’s sexual function was like after walk training, it is difficult to say how much benefit is attributed to epidural stimulation versus walk training.

In another study with two middle-aged females 5-10 years post-injury, one reported no change in sexual function and the other reported the ability to experience orgasms with epidural stimulation, which was not possible since her injury.

Refer to our article on Sexual Health After SCI for more information!

Botulinum toxin (Botox) injections and surgically implanted intrathecal Baclofen pumps are the most common ways to manage spasticity. Baclofen pumps are not without issues, however. Many individuals do not qualify for this treatment if they have seizures or blood pressure instability, and pumps require regular refilling.

Research in the 80s and 90s on the use of epidural stimulation for spasticity did not report very positive findings. It was noted that greater benefits were found in those with incomplete injury compared to those who were complete. Another paper concluded that (weak evidence) the beneficial effects of epidural stimulation on spasticity may subside for most users over a short period of time. This, combined with the potential for equipment failure and adverse events, suggested that epidural stimulation was not a feasible approach for ongoing management of spasticity.

More recently, positive results with epidural stimulation have been observed (weak evidence). This is likely due to improvements in technology, electrode placement, and stimulation parameters. Positive findings show that participants:

  • reported fewer spasms over 2 years
  • reported a reduction in severe spasms over 2 years
  • reported a reduction in spasticity
  • reported an improvement in spasticity over 1 year
  • were able to stop or reduce the dose of antispastic medication

For more information, visit our page on Botulinum Toxin and Spasticity!

In a study with a single participant (weak evidence) investigating walking, an individual implanted with an epidural stimulator also reported improvement in body temperature control, however details were not provided. More research is required to understand the role of epidural stimulation for temperature regulation.

In severe SCI, individuals may suffer from chronic low blood pressure and orthostatic hypotension (fall in blood pressure when moving to more upright postures). These conditions can have significant effects on health and quality of life. Some recent studies have looked at how epidural stimulation affects cardiovascular  function to improve orthostatic hypotension. Overall, they show (weak evidence) that epidural stimulation immediately increases blood pressure in individuals with low blood pressure while not affecting those who have normal blood pressure. They also showed that there is a training effect with repeated stimulation. This means that after consistently using stimulation for a while, normal blood pressure can occur even without stimulation when moving from lying to sitting.

Moreover, researchers are starting to believe that changes in orthostatic hypotension and blood pressure can promote changes in the immune system (Bloom et al., 2020). In the body, the blood helps to circulate immune cells so they are able to fight infections in various areas. One case study found that after 97 sessions of epidural stimulation, the participant had less precursors for inflammation and more precursors for immune responses. Although these changes are exciting, researchers are still unsure why this happens, and whether these effects occur with all people who are implanted with an epidural stimulator.

Refer to our article on Orthostatic Hypotension for more information!

For individuals with tetraplegia, even some recovery of hand function can mean a big improvement in quality of life. Research into using epidural stimulation to improve hand function consists of one case study (weak evidence) involving two young adult males who sustained motor complete cervical spinal cord injury over 18 months prior.

The researchers reported improvements in voluntary movement and hand function with training while using epidural stimulation implanted in the neck. Training involved grasping and moving a handgrip while receiving stimulation. For 2 months, one man engaged in weekly sessions while the other trained daily for seven days. One participant was tested for a longer time as a permanent electrode was implanted, while the other participant only received a temporary implant. Both participants increased hand strength over the course of one session. Additional sessions brought additional gradual improvements in hand strength as well as hand control (i.e., the ability to move the hand precisely). These improvements carried over to everyday activities, such as feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, transferring in and out of bed and moving in bed. Notably, these improvements were maintained when participants were not using epidural stimulation.

Being able to control your trunk (or torso) is important for performing everyday activities such as picking things up or reaching for items. One study found that using epidural stimulation can increase the amount of distance you are able to lean forward. The improvement in forward reach occurred immediately when the stimulation was turned on. The two participants in this study were also able to reach more side to side as well, but the improvement was minor.

Learning to make voluntary movements

Voluntary movements (i.e., being able to move your body when you want to) of affected limbs can occur with the use of epidural stimulation. Researchers are still unsure of the right training regimen to optimize results. For example, one study found that many sessions of step training with epidural stimulation are required for participants to slowly regain voluntary movement of the leg and foot with epidural stimulation when lying down. However, another study found that participants were able to voluntarily move their legs with stimulation and no stand training.

Voluntary movements (i.e., being able to move your body when you want to) of affected limbs can occur with the use of epidural stimulation. Researchers are still unsure of the right training regimen to optimize results. For example, one study found that many sessions of step and stand training with epidural stimulation are required for participants to slowly regain voluntary movement of the leg and foot with epidural stimulation when lying down. However, another study found that participants were able to voluntarily move their legs with stimulation and no stand training though the amount each participant was able to move their legs with epidural stimulation varied greatly. For example, one participant was able to voluntarily move their leg without any stimulation after over 500 hours of stand training with epidural stimulation while another participant from the same study was not able to voluntarily move their leg without stimulation after training. Overall, more than 25 people can move some or all of their leg joints voluntarily from the first time they receive epidural stimulation.

More recently, research shows that some with epidural stimulators can produce voluntary movements without stimulation on and without any intensive training program. In one study, participants did not do a consistent intensive training program, although many of them attended out-patient therapy or did therapy at home. Over the period of a year, 3 of 7 participants were able to voluntarily bend their knee, and bend and straighten their hips. Additionally, of those 3 participants, 2 were able to point their toes up and down. While the number of people able to make voluntary movements without stimulation is small, many more studies are underway.

Recent research indicates that epidural stimulation can influence walking function in individuals with limited or no motor function. While these findings are exciting, researchers are still learning how to use stimulation effectively to produce walking motions. Before being able to walk again, people must be able to make voluntary movements and be able to stand.

Learning to stand

Some studies have also found that with extensive practice (e.g., 80 sessions), independent standing (i.e., standing without the help of another person, but holding onto a bar) may be achieved without epidural stimulation. Gaining the ability to stand may also occur with stand training combined with epidural stimulation. However, the findings in regards to the effect of stand training with epidural stimulation have been mixed. For example, one study showed that stand training for 5 days a week over a 4 month period with epidural stimulation resulted in independent standing for up to 10 minutes in an individual with a complete C7 injury, while another study has suggested that independent standing for 1.5 minute can be achieved with epidural stimulation and 2 weeks of non-step specific training in an individual with complete T6 injury.

Learning to walk

Earlier research has found that epidural stimulation can help with the development of walking-like movements, but these movements do not resemble “normal” walking. Instead, they resemble slight up and down movements of the leg. Recent studies have shown that with 10 months of practicing activities while lying down on the back and on the side, in addition to standing and stepping training, people are able to take a step without assistance from another person or body weight support. While some individuals in these studies have been able to regain some walking function, they are walking at a very slow pace, ranging from 0.19 meters per second to 0.22 meters per second. This is much slower than the 0.66 meters per second required for community walking. For example, of the 4 participants in one study, two were able to walk on the ground with a walker, one was only able to walk on a treadmill, and one was able to walk on the ground while holding the hands of another person. These differences in walking abilities gained by participants were not expected.

In late 2018, one researcher demonstrated that constant epidural stimulation was interfering with proprioception, or the body’s ability to know where your limbs are in space, which ultimately hinders the walking relearning process. The solution to this problem involves activating the stimulation in a specific sequence, rather than having it continuously on. With this method and a years’ worth of training, participants were able to begin walking with an assistive device (such as a walker or poles) without stimulation. However, these individuals had to intensively practice standing and walking with stimulation for many months to produce these results. In these studies, one case of injury was reported where a participant sustained a hip fracture during walking with a body weight support. Further studies on how to individualize therapy will be necessary as the response to treatment in these studies varied greatly from person to person depending on the frequency and intensity of the stimulation.

Is it the training or the epidural stimulation?

Most of the stand/walk training conducted in the studies is with the use of a body weight support treadmill.


Arm and leg movement and blood pressure have been seen to improve with epidural stimulation, but the role of rehabilitation in these recoveries is unclear. Rehabilitation techniques can have an effect on regaining motor function. For example, step/walk training alone can help improve the ability to make voluntary movements, walking and blood pressure among individuals with incomplete injuries.  In much of the current research, epidural stimulation is paired with extensive training (typically around 80 sessions) before and after the epidural stimulator is implanted. Furthermore, these studies do not compare the effects of epidural stimulation to a control group who receives a fake stimulation (a placebo) which would help to see if stimulation truly has an effect. Without this comparison, we are unable to clearly understand the extent of recovery that is attributable to epidural stimulation versus the effects of training. However, evidence now shows that voluntary movement and cardiovascular function can be improve from the first time epidural stimulation is used, if the stimulation parameters are specific for the function and person, which supports the role of epidural stimulation in improving function.

Access to new medical treatment for those requiring it cannot come soon enough. Experimental therapies are typically expensive and not covered by health care. Rigorous and sufficient testing is required before treatments become standard practice and receive health care coverage. Epidural stimulation for improving function in SCI is a unique example because epidural stimulation technology has been used widely to treat intractable back pain in individuals without SCI. The benefit of this is that, if/when epidural stimulation for individuals with SCI is shown to be safe and effective, the move from experimental clinical practice could happen relatively quickly as a number of hurdles from regulatory bodies have already been overcome. That said, current barriers to accessing epidural stimulation noted in a survey study of doctors include a lack of strong evidence research showing benefits, a lack of guidelines for the right stimulation settings, and an inability to determine who will benefit from it.

In Canada, the cost for an institution to install an epidural stimulation system for back pain in those without spinal cord injury, which is a common procedure, was $21,595 CAD. The cost incurred by a Canadian citizen undergoing implantation in Canada is $0 as it is covered by publicly funded health care.

 

In the United States, the cost for an institution to install an epidural stimulation system for back pain in those without spinal cord injury ranged between $32,882 USD (Medicare) and $57,896 USD (Blue Cross Blue Shield). The cost incurred for American citizens in the US will vary widely depending on their insurance coverage.

In contrast, for individuals with SCI, an epidural stimulation system is reported to cost over $100,000 USD in Thailand, and higher in other countries. Prospective clients should be aware that the epidural stimulation offered by these clinics may not be the same as that in the research reported in this article.

The recommended course for those wishing to try epidural stimulation is to register in a clinical trial. Regardless, persons interested in pursuing surgery at a private clinic or registering for clinical trials will find it useful to refer to the clinical trial guidelines published by ICORD (https://icord.org/research/iccp-clinical-trials-information/) for information on what they should be aware of when considering having an epidural stimulator implanted. Research studies that involve epidural stimulation can be found by searching the clinicaltrials.gov database.

Overall, there is evidence that epidural stimulation can improve function and health after SCI in numerous ways. However, because of the invasive nature of epidural stimulator implantation, research in this area involves few participants, no control groups, and no randomization, so it is classified as weak evidence. It is therefore important to keep in mind that while these recent reports are encouraging, more rigorous studies with more participants are needed to confirm the benefits and risks of this treatment to determine its place in SCI symptom management.

Epidural stimulation is not “plug and play” technology. Each implanted device needs to be tailored to the spine of the recipient. Some individuals respond to certain stimulation settings while others may respond better to other settings. Furthermore, over time, the need to change stimulation settings or even reposition the implant to maintain effectiveness may be required. Extensive physical training appears to be required for epidural stimulation to be most effective in improving standing or walking. The additional benefit of epidural stimulation to walk training is not always clear from the literature.

 

For a list of included studies, please see the Reference List. For a review of what we mean by “strong”, “moderate”, and “weak” evidence, refer to the SCIRE Community Evidence Ratings.


Parts of this page have been adapted from the SCIRE Project (Professional) “Spasticity”, “Bladder Management”, and “Pain Management” chapters:

Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, McIntyre A, Townson AF, Short C, Mills P, Vu V, Benton B, Wolfe DL (2016). Spasticity Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Curt A, Mehta S, Sakakibara BM, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 6.0.

Available from: scireproject.com/evidence/rehabilitation-evidence/spasticity/

Hsieh J, McIntyre A, Iruthayarajah J, Loh E, Ethans K, Mehta S, Wolfe D, Teasell R. (2014). Bladder Management Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0: p 1-196.

Available from: scireproject.com/evidence/rehabilitation-evidence/bladder-management/

Mehta S, Teasell RW, Loh E, Short C, Wolfe DL, Benton B, Hsieh JTC (2016). Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Loh E, McIntyre A, Querée M, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 6.0: p 1-92.

Available from: scireproject.com/evidence/rehabilitation-evidence/pain-management/


Evidence for “What is epidural stimulation” is based on the following studies:

International Neuromodulation Society. (2010). Neuromodulation: An Emerging Field.

Toossi, A., Everaert, D. G., Azar, A., Dennison, C. R., & Mushahwar, V. K. (2017). Mechanically Stable Intraspinal Microstimulation Implants for Human Translation. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 45(3), 681–694. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10439-016-1709-0

Evidence for “How does epidural stimulation work?” is based on the following studies:

Evidence for “How are epidural stimulation electrodes implanted?” is based on the following studies:

Lu, D. C., Edgerton, V. R., Modaber, M., AuYong, N., Morikawa, E., Zdunowski, S., … Gerasimenko, Y. (2016a). Engaging Cervical Spinal Cord Networks to Reenable Volitional Control of Hand Function in Tetraplegic Patients. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, 30(10), 951–962. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27198185

Lu, D. C., Edgerton, V. R., Modaber, M., AuYong, N., Morikawa, E., Zdunowski, S., … Gerasimenko, Y. (2016b). Engaging Cervical Spinal Cord Networks to Reenable Volitional Control of Hand Function in Tetraplegic Patients. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, 30(10), 951–962.

Evidence for “Are there restrictions or precautions for using epidural stimulation?” is based on the following studies:

Moore, D. M., & McCrory, C. (2016). Spinal cord stimulation. BJA Education, 16(8), 258–263. Retrieved from https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2058534917300975

Wolter, T. (2014). Spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain: current perspectives. Journal of Pain Research, 7, 651–663.

Evidence for “Are there risks and side effects of epidural stimulation?” is based on the following studies:

Eldabe, S., Buchser, E., & Duarte, R. V. (2015). Complications of Spinal Cord Stimulation and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Techniques: A Review of the Literature. Pain Medicine, 17(2), pnv025. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/painmedicine/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/pm/pnv025

Taccola, G., Barber, S., Horner, P. J., Bazo, H. A. C., & Sayenko, D. (2020). Complications of epidural spinal stimulation: lessons from the past and alternatives for the future. Spinal Cord, 58(10), 1049–1059. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41393-020-0505-8

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and bladder and bowel function” is based on the following studies:

Herrity, A. N., Williams, C. S., Angeli, C. A., Harkema, S. J., & Hubscher, C. H. (2018). Lumbosacral spinal cord epidural stimulation improves voiding function after human spinal cord injury. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1–11. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26602-2

Herrity, April N., Aslan, S. C., Ugiliweneza, B., Mohamed, A. Z., Hubscher, C. H., & Harkema, S. J. (2021). Improvements in Bladder Function Following Activity-Based Recovery Training With Epidural Stimulation After Chronic Spinal Cord Injury. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 14(January), 1–14.

Hubscher, C. H., Herrity, A. N., Williams, C. S., Montgomery, L. R., Willhite, A. M., Angeli, C. A., & Harkema, S. J. (2018). Improvements in bladder, bowel and sexual outcomes following task-specific locomotor training in human spinal cord injury. Plos One, 1–26.

Darrow, D., Balser, D., Netoff, T. I., Krassioukov, A., Phillips, A., Parr, A., & Samadani, U. (2019). Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation Facilitates Immediate Restoration of Dormant Motor and Autonomic Supraspinal Pathways after Chronic Neurologically Complete Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 2336, neu.2018.6006. Retrieved from https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/neu.2018.6006

Beck, L., Veith, D., Linde, M., Gill, M., Calvert, J., Grahn, P., … Zhao, K. (2020). Impact of long-term epidural electrical stimulation enabled task-specific training on secondary conditions of chronic paraplegia in two humans. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 0(0), 1–6. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2020.1739894

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and body composition” is based on the following studies:

Terson de Paleville, D. G. L., Harkema, S. J., & Angeli, C. A. (2019). Epidural stimulation with locomotor training improves body composition in individuals with cervical or upper thoracic motor complete spinal cord injury: A series of case studies. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 42(1), 32–38.

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and pain” is based on the following studies:

Guan, Y. (2012). Spinal cord stimulation: neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms of action. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 16(3), 217–225.

Marchand, S. (2015). Spinal cord stimulation analgesia. PAIN, 156(3), 364–365.

Tasker, R. R., DeCarvalho, G. T., & Dolan, E. J. (1992). Intractable pain of spinal cord origin: clinical features and implications for surgery. Journal of Neurosurgery.

Cioni, B., Meglio, M., Pentimalli, L., & Visocchi, M. (1995). Spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of paraplegic pain. Journal of Neurosurgery, 82(1), 35–39.

Warms, C. A., Turner, J. A., Marshall, H. M., & Cardenas, D. D. (2002). Treatments for chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries: many are tried, few are helpful. Clinical Journal of Pain, 18(3), 154–163.

Reck, T. A., & Landmann, G. (2017). Successful spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic below-level spinal cord injury pain following complete paraplegia: a case report. Spinal Cord Series and Cases, 3, 17049.

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and respiratory function” is based on the following studies:

Hachmann, J. T., Grahn, P. J., Calvert, J. S., Drubach, D. I., Lee, K. H., & Lavrov, I. A. (2017). Electrical Neuromodulation of the Respiratory System After Spinal Cord Injury. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(9), 1401–1414. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28781176

DiMarco, A. F., Kowalski, K. E., Geertman, R. T., & Hromyak, D. R. (2006). Spinal cord stimulation: a new method to produce an effective cough in patients with spinal cord injury. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 173(12), 1386–1389.

DiMarco, A. F., Kowalski, K. E., Geertman, R. T., & Hromyak, D. R. (2009). Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation to restore cough in patients with spinal cord injury: results of a National Institutes of Health-sponsored clinical trial. Part I: methodology and effectiveness of expiratory muscle activation. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 90(5), 717–725.

Harkema, S. J., Wang, S., Angeli, C. A., Chen, Y., Boakye, M., Ugiliweneza, B., & Hirsch, G. A. (2018). Normalization of Blood Pressure With Spinal Cord Epidural Stimulation After Severe Spinal Cord Injury. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, 83.

DiMarco, A. F., Kowalski, K. E., Hromyak, D. R., & Geertman, R. T. (2014). Long-term follow-up of spinal cord stimulation to restore cough in subjects with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 37(4), 380–388.

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and sexual function” is based on the following studies:

Harkema, S., Gerasimenko, Y., Hodes, J., Burdick, J., Angeli, C., Chen, Y., … Edgerton, V. R. (2011). Effect of epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord on voluntary movement, standing, and assisted stepping after motor complete paraplegia: A case study. The Lancet, 377(9781), 1938–1947.

Darrow, D., Balser, D., Netoff, T. I., Krassioukov, A., Phillips, A., Parr, A., & Samadani, U. (2019). Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation Facilitates Immediate Restoration of Dormant Motor and Autonomic Supraspinal Pathways after Chronic Neurologically Complete Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 2336, neu.2018.6006. Retrieved from https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/neu.2018.600

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and spasticity” is based on the following studies:

Nagel, S. J., Wilson, S., Johnson, M. D., Machado, A., Frizon, L., Chardon, M. K., … Howard, M. A. 3rd. (2017). Spinal Cord Stimulation for Spasticity: Historical Approaches, Current Status, and Future Directions. Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society, 20(4), 307–321.

Dekopov, A. V., Shabalov, V. A., Tomsky, A. A., Hit, M. V., & Salova, E. M. (2015). Chronic spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of cerebral and spinal spasticity. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

Dimitrijevic, M. R., Illis, L. S., Nakajima, K., Sharkey, P. C., & Sherwood, A. M. (1986). Spinal cord stimulation for the control of spasticity in patients with chronic spinal cord injury: II. Neurophysiologic observations. Central Nervous System Trauma, 3(2), 145–152. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=med2&AN=3490313

Midha, M., & Schmitt, J. K. (1998). Epidural spinal cord stimulation for the control of spasticity in spinal cord injury patients lacks long-term efficacy and is not cost-effective. Spinal Cord, 36(3), 190–192. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/3100532

Barolat, G., Singh-Sahni, K., Staas, W. E. J., Shatin, D., Ketcik, B., & Allen, K. (1995). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of spasms in spinal cord injury: a prospective study. Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery, 64(3), 153–164.

Dekopov, A. V., Shabalov, V. A., Tomsky, A. A., Hit, M. V., & Salova, E. M. (2015). Chronic spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of cerebral and spinal spasticity. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

Pinter, M. M., Gerstenbrand, F., & Dimitrijevic, M. R. (2000). Epidural electrical stimulation of posterior structures of the human lumbosacral cord: 3. Control Of spasticity. Spinal Cord, 38(9), 524–531. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/3101040

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and temperature regulation” is based on the following studies:

Edgerton, V. R., & Harkema, S. (2011). Epidural stimulation of the spinal cord in spinal cord injury: current status and future challenges. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 11(10), 1351–1353. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=med7&AN=21955190

Harkema, S. J., Gerasimenko, Y., Hodes, J., Burdick, J., Angeli, C., Chen, Y., … Edgerton, V. R. (2011). Supplementary index: Effect of epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord on voluntary movement, standing, and assisted stepping after motor complete paraplegia: A case study. The Lancet, 377(9781), 1938–1947. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21601270

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and cardiovascular function” is based on the following studies:

Bloom, O., Wecht, J. M., Legg Ditterline, B. E., Wang, S., Ovechkin, A. V., Angeli, C. A., … Harkema, S. J. (2020). Prolonged Targeted Cardiovascular Epidural Stimulation Improves Immunological Molecular Profile: A Case Report in Chronic Severe Spinal Cord Injury. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 14(October), 1–11.

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and hand function” is based on the following study:

Lu, D. C., Edgerton, V. R., Modaber, M., AuYong, N., Morikawa, E., Zdunowski, S., … Gerasimenko, Y. (2016a). Engaging Cervical Spinal Cord Networks to Reenable Volitional Control of Hand Function in Tetraplegic Patients. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, 30(10), 951–962. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27198185

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and movement: trunk control” is based on the following studies:

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and movement: voluntary movements” is based on the following studies:

Rejc, E., Angeli, C. A., Bryant, N., & Harkema, S. J. (2017). Effects of Stand and Step Training with Epidural Stimulation on Motor Function for Standing in Chronic Complete Paraplegics. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34, 1787–18023. Retrieved from www.liebertpub.com

Angeli, C. A., Edgerton, V. R., Gerasimenko, Y. P., & Harkema, S. J. (2014). Altering spinal cord excitability enables voluntary movements after chronic complete paralysis in humans. Brain, 137(Pt 5), 1394–1409. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3999714/

Peña Pino, I., Hoover, C., Venkatesh, S., Ahmadi, A., Sturtevant, D., Patrick, N., Freeman, D., Parr, A., Samadani, U., Balser, D., Krassioukov, A., Phillips, A., Netoff, T. I., & Darrow, D. (2020). Long-Term Spinal Cord Stimulation After Chronic Complete Spinal Cord Injury Enables Volitional Movement in the Absence of Stimulation. Frontiers in systems neuroscience14, 35. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2020.00035

Evidence for “Epidural stimulation and movement: walking and standing” is based on the following studies:

Grahn, P. J., Lavrov, I. A., Sayenko, D. G., Straaten, M. G. Van, Gill, M. L., Strommen, J. A., … Lee, K. H. (2017). Enabling Task-Specific Volitional Motor Functions via Spinal Cord Neuromodulation in a Human with Paraplegia. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(4), 544–554. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.02.014

Harkema, S. J., Gerasimenko, Y., Hodes, J., Burdick, J., Angeli, C., Chen, Y., … Edgerton, V. R. (2011). Supplementary index: Effect of epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord on voluntary movement, standing, and assisted stepping after motor complete paraplegia: A case study. The Lancet, 377(9781), 1938–1947. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21601270

Rejc, E., Angeli, C. A., Atkinson, D., & Harkema, S. J. (2017). Motor recovery after activity-based training with spinal cord epidural stimulation in a chronic motor complete paraplegic. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 13476. Retrieved from www.nature.com/scientificreports

Rejc, E., Angeli, C., & Harkema, S. (2015). Effects of Lumbosacral Spinal Cord Epidural Stimulation for Standing after Chronic Complete Paralysis in Humans. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource], 10(7), e0133998. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=med8&AN=26207623

Grahn, P. J., Lavrov, I. A., Sayenko, D. G., Straaten, M. G. Van, Gill, M. L., Strommen, J. A., … Lee, K. H. (2017). Enabling Task-Specific Volitional Motor Functions via Spinal Cord Neuromodulation in a Human with Paraplegia. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(4), 544–554. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.02.014

Gill, M. L., Grahn, P. J., Calvert, J. S., Linde, M. B., Lavrov, I. A., Strommen, J. A., … Zhao, K. D. (2018). Neuromodulation of lumbosacral spinal networks enables independent stepping after complete paraplegia. Nature Medicine, 24(11), 1677–1682. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0175-7

Angeli, C. A., Boakye, M., Morton, R. A., Vogt, J., Benton, K., Chen, Y., … Harkema, S. J. (2018). Recovery of Over-Ground Walking after Chronic Motor Complete Spinal Cord Injury. New England Journal of Medicine, 379(13), 1244–1250. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=medl&AN=30247091

van de Port, I. G., Kwakkel, G., & Lindeman, E. (2008). Community ambulation in patients with chronic stroke: How is it related to gait speed? Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 40(1), 23–27.

Wagner, F. B., Mignardot, J.-B., Le Goff-Mignardot, C. G., Demesmaeker, R., Komi, S., Capogrosso, M., … Courtine, G. (2018). Targeted neurotechnology restores walking in humans with spinal cord injury. Nature, 563(7729), 65–71. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0649-2

Angeli, C. A., Edgerton, V. R., Gerasimenko, Y. P., & Harkema, S. J. (2014). Altering spinal cord excitability enables voluntary movements after chronic complete paralysis in humans. Brain, 137(Pt 5), 1394–1409. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3999714/

Carhart, M. R., He, J., Herman, R., D’Luzansky, S., & Willis, W. T. (2004). Epidural spinal-cord stimulation facilitates recovery of functional walking following incomplete spinal-cord injury. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, 12(1), 32–42. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=med5&AN=15068185

Harkema, S. J., Wang, S., Angeli, C. A., Chen, Y., Boakye, M., Ugiliweneza, B., & Hirsch, G. A. (2018). Normalization of Blood Pressure With Spinal Cord Epidural Stimulation After Severe Spinal Cord Injury. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, 83.

Legg Ditterline, B. E., Aslan, S. C., Wang, S., Ugiliweneza, B., Hirsch, G. A., Wecht, J. M., & Harkema, S. (2020). Restoration of autonomic cardiovascular regulation in spinal cord injury with epidural stimulation: a case series. Clinical Autonomic Research, (0123456789), 2–5. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-020-00693-2

Evidence for “Costs and availability of epidural stimulation” is based on the following studies:

Solinsky, R., Specker-Sullivan, L., & Wexler, A. (2020). Current barriers and ethical considerations for clinical implementation of epidural stimulation for functional improvement after spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 43(5), 653–656.

Kumar, K., & Bishop, S. (2009). Financial impact of spinal cord stimulation on the healthcare budget: a comparative analysis of costs in Canada and the United States. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

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Baclofen

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Author: SCIRE Community Team | Reviewer: Patricia Mills | Published: 21 November 2017 | Updated: ~

Baclofen is a medication that is used to treat spasticity. This page provides basic information about baclofen and its use after spinal cord injury (SCI).

Key Points

  • Baclofen (Lioresal) is a medication that is used to relax muscles affected by spasticity.
  • Baclofen is derived from gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), a chemical in the body that helps to reduce reflexes that are responsible for spasticity.
  • Baclofen can be taken by mouth as a tablet or injected into the spinal canal in a liquid form through an implanted pump (an intrathecal baclofen pump).
  • Research evidence supports that both baclofen tablets and baclofen pumps are effective to reduce spasticity after SCI.
Ball and stick model of baclofen.

Ball and stick model of baclofen.1

Baclofen is a medication that is used to treat spasticity. It is also known by the trade name Lioresal. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant medication that helps to reduce muscle tension and spasms caused by nervous system disorders like spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis.

Baclofen is derived from a chemical called gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), which reduces muscle activity. It can enter into the brain and spinal cord, where it helps to reduce reflexes responsible for spasticity. Baclofen can be taken by mouth as a tablet or injected into the spinal canal as a fluid using an implanted baclofen pump.

Baclofen in tablet form is usually the first type of medication used to treat spasticity after SCI. There is strong evidence that oral baclofen improves the symptoms of spasticity after SCI.

For a review of what we mean by “strong”, “moderate”, and “weak” evidence, please see SCIRE Community Evidence Ratings.

Baclofen administered by intrathecal pump is usually a last option that is explored because of the surgery that is required to implant the pump. However, when it is used, there is strong evidence that intrathecal baclofen is effective to treat the symptoms of spasticity in people with SCI.

Baclofen is a prescription medication that is given with specific instructions from your health providers on how to take it. It is important to follow their instructions closely when taking this medication and discuss any questions you have about your use of the medication directly with your team.

Baclofen tablets

Two round white 20mg baclofen tablets with "DAN" and "5731" inscribed on one side, and "20" inscribed on the other side.

Baclofen tablet 20 mg. 2

Baclofen is usually taken by mouth as a tablet. Baclofen is prescribed at a unique dose for you and then carefully monitored. Treatment is usually started with a trial of a low dose of the drug to find out if it works and then slowly increased to determine the optimal dose. This dose will then be maintained while continuing to take the drug.

You can expect some side effects when starting Baclofen (and any other anti-spasticity drug), so do not be surprised if that should happen. As your body gets used to the new drug, the side effects can improve and in some cases completely resolve. Side effects, if they occur, usually are experienced before the drug starts to work on the spasticity therefore it is important to stay on the drug as long as the side effects are tolerable. If the side effects have not improved or are not tolerable by the end of 2 weeks of starting the new drug, and you don’t feel that the benefit of the drug is worth the side effects that you are experiencing, then notify your physician as you will likely have to either decrease the dose or consider trying another drug instead.

Cartoon diagram of a man's body with a disc-shaped intrathecal pump implanted under the skin with a red wire catheter inserted into the spinal column

Diagram showing an intrathecal pump inside the spinal column.3

Baclofen pumps (Intrathecal baclofen)

Baclofen may also be injected directly into the sac that surrounds the spinal cord. This is called intrathecal baclofen. ‘Intrathecal’ means ‘within the spinal sac’ (also called the thecal sac).

Intrathecal baclofen is usually administered using a surgically implanted pump that is placed under the skin near the abdomen called a baclofen pump. The pump is then connected to the spinal cord fluid through a thin tube (catheter) that travels through your soft tissue underneath the skin. The pump provides a dose of the medication through the catheter at regular intervals according to its settings.

Baclofen pumps are first managed by a health provider in a hospital setting in the early days following surgical implantation. Then, the device can be programmed to release a programmed dose of baclofen throughout the day for use at home.

Regular visits to the intrathecal baclofen pump doctor are required to refill the pump and monitor for any problems. Therefore, in order for you to be a candidate for getting the pump, you need to be able to travel from where you live to where the pump can be serviced. The pump can be removed if you decide you no longer would like to receive the treatment.

Increasing oral baclofen dosage may result in a number of side effects like sleepiness. The solution is a pump implanted under the skin that administers baclofen directly to the spinal cord, aka “intrathecally”.

When are baclofen pumps used?

Typically, intrathecal baclofen is recommended when spasticity is severe and widespread throughout the body, and other approaches to manage your spasticity, such as medications by mouth, have not worked. Much lower doses of baclofen are used when given as an intrathecal injection. This may help people with severe spasticity to manage spasticity more effectively, and usually results in no side effects.

However, it is important to know that complications with the pump can occur, potentially causing episodes of too much baclofen (baclofen overdose) or too little baclofen (baclofen withdrawal) to be delivered. Therefore, it is important to consult with an intrathecal baclofen pump expert in order to determine if the pump is a good option for you.

Baclofen is not appropriate for everyone. There are certain situations in which it may not be safe to use. This is not a complete list; please consult a health provider for detailed safety information before using this treatment.

Baclofen should not be used in the following situations:

  • By people with health conditions such as epilepsy, kidney problems, diabetes, or breathing problems
  • By people with conditions that cause confusion or depression
  • By people with abnormal blood circulation in the brain
  • By people experiencing pain in the stomach or intestine
  • By individuals with a baclofen allergy
  • By pregnant and nursing women
  • Oral baclofen may be unsafe in individuals with liver disease or difficulty urinating
  • Intrathecal baclofen may be unsafe for people with a history of heart problems, infections, or by those who are prone to autonomic dysreflexia

Even for those who are not restricted from using baclofen (see above), there may be risks and side effects with the use of this treatment. It is important to discuss these possibilities in detail with your health provider before using this treatment.

Risks and side effects of baclofen may include:

  • Drowsiness, tiredness, or dizziness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
  • Interactions with other drugs such as antidepressants, sleeping pills, alcohol, and other medications
  • Baclofen pumps are implanted surgically, which carries a risk of infection and other surgical risks

Because baclofen helps to relax the muscles, it may also have unintended effects on other medical problems that benefit from increased muscle tone. For example:

  • It may further reduce the cough reflex in people who already have trouble coughing
  • It may make it more difficult to walk, stand, or do other tasks requiring muscle strength and movement
  • Baclofen pumps may make it more difficult for men to have erections, although this may be regained when reducing the dose or stopping treatment

In addition, stopping baclofen therapy abruptly can cause withdrawal. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including seizures, hallucinations, confusion, and fever. When baclofen is stopped, the dose of the medication should be gradually lowered over time before it can be stopped. It is important to follow the routine recommended by your health providers when stopping use of this medication.

Important considerations when treating spasticity

Although we often focus on the negative effects of spasticity, it can also have benefits. For example, spasticity in the legs can sometimes help people transfer more effectively or stand and walk. For this reason, when treatments like baclofen work the way they are supposed to, they can sometimes have negative effects, such as:

  • Reduced functional abilities, such as the ability to transfer, stand, or walk
  • Loss of health benefits of spasticity, such as better circulation and muscle strength
  • Loss of spasticity as a warning sign of other health problems (such as infections or injuries below the level of injury)

The decision to treat spasticity needs to be made by you and your health team on a personal basis, taking into consideration function, symptoms, and the benefits and drawbacks of treatment.

Baclofen is a common treatment for spasticity after SCI. Both baclofen tablets and baclofen pumps are effective for reducing spasticity in people with SCI. As baclofen therapy requires careful dosing and monitoring, it is important to discuss with your health provider about whether this treatment option is suitable for you and how to use it appropriately.

For a review of what we mean by “strong”, “moderate”, and “weak” evidence, please see SCIRE Community Evidence Ratings.

Parts of this page have been adapted from the SCIRE Professional “Spasticity” Module:

Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, McIntyre A, Townson AF, Short C, Mills P, Vu V, Benton B, Wolfe DL (2016). Spasticity Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Loh E, McIntyre A, Querée M, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 6.0: p 1-135.

Available from: https://scireproject.com/evidence/spasticity/

Evidence for “What is baclofen?” is based on the following studies:

Oral baclofen:

[1] Chu V, Hornby T, Schmit B. Effect of antispastic drugs on motor reflexes and voluntary muscle contraction in incomplete spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2014;95:622-32.

[2] Nance P, Huff F, Martinez-Arizala A, Ayyoub Z, Chen D, Bian A, Stamler D. Efficacy and safety study of arbaclofen placarbil in patients with spasticity due to spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011;49:974-80.

[3] Aydin G, Tomruk S, Keles I, Demir S, Orkun S. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus baclofen in spasticity: clinical and electrophysiologic comparison. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84:584-92.

[4] Duncan G, Shahani B, Young R. An evaluation of baclofen treatment for certain symptoms in patients with spinal cord lesions. A double-blind, cross-over study. Neurology 1976;26:441-6.

[5] Burke D, Gillies J, Lance J. An objective assessment of a gamma aminobutyric acid derivative in the control of spasticity. Proc Aust Assoc Neurol 1971;8:131-4.

[6] Dicpinigaitis P, Allusson V, Baldanti A, and Nalamati J. Ethnic and gender differences in cough reflex sensitivity. Respiration 2001;68:480-2.Dicpinigaitis P, Allusson V, Baldanti A, and Nalamati J. Ethnic and gender differences in cough reflex sensitivity. Respiration 2001;68:480-2.

[7] Veerakumar A, Cheng J, Sunshine A, Ye X, Zorowitz R, Anderson W. Baclofen dosage after traumatic spinal cord injury: a multi-decade retrospective analysis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2015;129:50-6.

[8] Nance P. A comparison of clonidine, cyproheptadine and baclofen in spastic spinal cord injured patients. J Am Paraplegia Soc 1994;17:150-6.

Intrathecal baclofen:

[1] Ordia J, Fischer E, Adamski E, Spatz E. Chronic intrathecal delivery of baclofen by a programmable pump for the treatment of severe spasticity. J Neurosurg 1996;85:452-7.

[2] Nance P, Schryvers O, Schmidt B, Dubo H, Loveridge B, Fewer D. Intrathecal baclofen therapy for adults with spinal spasticity: therapeutic efficacy and effect on hospital admissions. Can J Neurol Sci 1995;22:22-9.

[3] Coffey J, Cahill D, Steers W, Park T, Ordia J, Meythaler J, et al. Intrathecal baclofen for intractable spasticity of spinal origin: results of a long-term multicenter study. J Neurosurg 1993;78:226-32.

[4] Hugenholtz H, Nelson R, Dehoux E, Bickerton R. Intrathecal baclofen for intractable spinal spasticity-a double-blind cross-over comparison with placebo in 6 patients. Can J Neurol Sci 1992;19:188-95.

[5] Loubser P, Narayan R, Sandin K, Donovan W, Russell K. Continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen: long-term effects on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 1991;29:48-64.

[6] Penn R, Savoy S, Corcos D, Latash M, Gottlieb G, Parke B et al. Intrathecal baclofen for severe spinal spasticity. N Engl J Med 1989;320:1517-21.

[7] Boviatsis E, Kouyialis A, Korfias S, Sakas D. Functional outcome of intrathecal baclofen administration for severe spasticity. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2005;107:289-95.

[8] Azouvi P, Mane M, Thiebaut J, Denys P, Remy-Neris O, Bussel B. Intrathecal baclofen administration for control of severe spinal spasticity: functional improvement and long-term follow-up. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:35-9.

[9] Plassat R, Perrouin Verbe B, Menei P, Menegalli D, Mathe J, Richard I. Treatment of spasticity with intrathecal baclofen administration: Long-term follow-up review of 40 patients. Spinal Cord 2004;42:686-93.

[10] Zahavi A, Geertzen J, Middel B, Staal M, Rietman J. Long term effect (more than five years) of intrathecal baclofen on impairment, disability, and quality of life in patients with severe spasticity of spinal origin. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychi 2004;75:1553-7.

[11] Korenkov A, Niendorf W, Darwish N, Glaeser E, Gaab M. Continuous intrathecal infusion of baclofen in patients with spasticity caused by spinal cord injuries. Neurosurg Rev 2002;25:228-30.

[12] Broseta J, Garcia-March G, Sanchez-Ledesma M, Anaya J, Silva I. Chronic intrathecal baclofen administration in severe spasticity. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1990;54-55:147-53.

[13] Parke B, Penn R, Savoy S, Corcos D. Functional outcome after delivery of intrathecal baclofen. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989;70:30-2.

Other references:

Burchiel KJ, Hsu FP. Pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury: mechanisms and treatment. Spine 2001; 26(24 Suppl):S146-S160.

Denys P, Mane M, Azouvi P, Chartier-Kastler E, Thiebaut JB, Bussel B. Side effects of chronic intrathecal baclofen on erection and ejaculation in patients with spinal cord lesions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79(5):494-496.

Dicpinigaitis PV, Dobkin JB, Reichel J. Typical versus cough-variant of asthma: differentiation by cough reflex sensitivity and the antitussive effect of zafirlukast. Eur Respir J. 2000; 16:525s.

Gracies JM, Nance P, Elovic E, McGuire J, Simpson DM. Traditional pharmacological treatments for spasticity. Part II: General and regional treatments. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997; 6:S92-120.

Hinderer SR. The supraspinal anxiolytic effect of baclofen for spasticity reduction. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1990; 69(5):254-258.

Jones ML, Leslie DP, Bilsky G, Bowman B. Effects of intrathecal baclofen on perceived sexual functioning in men with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2008; 31:97-102.

Kirshblum S. Treatment alternatives for spinal cord injury related spasticity. J Spinal Cord Med 1999; 22(3):199-217.

Knutsson E, Lindblom U, Martensson A. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of baclofen (Lioresal) at optimal therapeutic responses in spastic paresis. J Neurol Sci 1974; 23(3):473-484.

Nance PW, Schryvers O, Schmidt B, Dubo H, Loveridge B, Fewer D. Intrathecal baclofen therapy for adults with spinal spasticity: therapeutic efficacy and effect on hospital admissions. Can J Neurol Sci 1995; 22:22-29.

Nance PW. A comparison of clonidine, cyproheptadine and baclofen in spastic spinal cord injured patients. J Am Paraplegia Soc 1994; 17(3):150-156.

Postma TJBM, Oenema D, Terpstra S et al. Cost analysis of the treatment of severe spinal spasticity with a continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion system. PharmacoEconomics 1999; 15(4):395-404.

CPS [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Pharmacists Association; c2016 [cited 2017 Oct 10]. Available from: http://www.e-cps.ca or http://www.myrxtx.ca. Also available in paper copy from the publisher.

Image credits

  1. Baclofen ball-and-stick model, ©Vaccinationist, CC BY-SA 4.0,
  2. National Institutes of Health, part of the United States Department of Health and Human ServicesBaclofen 20 mg oral tablet, CC0 1.0
  3. Intrathecal-pump-cartoon, ©R.E.B.E.L EM, CC BY-NC-ND 3.0.

 

Disclaimer: This document does not provide medical advice. This information is provided for educational purposes only. Consult a qualified health professional for further information or specific medical advice. The SCIRE Project, its partners and collaborators disclaim any liability to any party for any loss or damage by errors or omissions in this publication.

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)

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Author: SCIRE Community Team | Reviewer: Shannon Sproule | Published: 10 October 2017 | Updated: ~

Functional electrical stimulation is a treatment that activates muscles below the spinal cord injury (SCI) during exercise and activity. This page outlines basic information about functional electrical stimulation and its use for movement and strength after SCI.

Key Points

  • Electrical stimulation can be used to activate muscles that are weak or paralyzed after an SCI.
  • Functional electrical stimulation (FES) involves stimulating the muscles during an activity like exercise or movement.
  • FES is relatively safe and widely available treatment option for improving muscle strength and fitness after SCI.
  • Overall, the research evidence suggests that FES is most likely effective for improving muscle strength after SCI. It may also improve fitness, walking skills, bone density and other symptoms, although more high quality research is needed to confirm.

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a type of neuromodulation where electrical stimulation is applied to the nerves located outside the spinal cord and brain. This stimulation causes the muscles to contract and can assist with purposeful or functional movement in weak or paralyzed muscles.

FES is delivered using a variety of handheld or specialized commercial electrical therapy machines connected to electrodes that are placed on the skin surface. Systems are also available with implanted electrodes in the muscles, although this is very specialized and not widely available.

FES electrodes are placed on the leg muscles to be used during stationary cycling.1

Muscle stimulation is used for several reasons after SCI:

To promote movement and strength in weak or paralyzed muscles: Muscles stimulation is used early in rehabilitation to promote movement in muscles that are not moving or only producing a flicker of movement. It may promote recovery of movement function by assisting with normal movements and with repetition of movements.

To improve fitness and health: When FES is used as part of a rhythmic exercise like cycling, walking, or rowing, it can help to maintain health of the heart, lungs, and circulation. It may also help to maintain healthy bones.

To assist with functional movement activities like stepping, getting up to standing, and grasping: FES can be used to assist with purposeful movements by improving muscle contractions (for weakened muscles), mobility or range of movement as well as possibly decreasing spasticity.

To maintain muscle mass below the SCI: Regular use of FES may help to prevent muscle loss that happens when the muscles that are paralyzed are not used. Unless neurological return occurs this improvement will stop if the FES is discontinued.

To control the muscles of breathing and bladder function: This includes the use of surgically implanted diaphragmatic pacers (FES systems that create muscle contractions in the diaphragm to stimulate regular breaths) and bladder control systems (FES systems that stimulate the muscles of urination). However, this page will focus on FES used for movement and strength after SCI.

Watch our YouTube video about FES!

Other names for FES of muscles

You may hear other names for FES such as “neuromuscular electrical stimulation” (NMES) or simply “electrical stimulation” (ES). These terms are often used to refer to electrical stimulation of the muscles during more passive activities (like lying down or sitting), while ”FES” usually describes stimulation during purposeful activities like cycling or walking. However, in practice these terms are often used interchangeably to describe similar or related treatments and the goals of all are to promote strength, movement and function and decrease pain and spasticity.

There are a number of other neuromodulation techniques that are used for various purposes in SCI, including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, sacral nerve stimulation, and intrathecal Baclofen, described in other SCIRE Community articles.

It is important to speak with a health provider about using FES to make sure it is safe and suitable for you and to learn how to use the equipment correctly.

FES is usually applied through electrodes that are placed on the surface of the skin, although electrodes can also be implanted into the muscles. Electrodes are placed over nerves or part of the muscles below the SCI that respond well to electrical stimulation. The electrodes are then attached to an adjustable machine that generates the stimulation. Your health provider will determine the settings that are used for the treatment and how long it will last for.

The electrical stimulation is then gradually turned up until the muscles begin to tense or contract. Depending on your sensation, as the machine is turned up, you may feel pins and needles or other unusual sensations, which may take some time to get used to. The aim is to create a forceful but tolerable muscle contraction.

FES is applied through electrodes on the leg muscles during assisted walking.2

If the electrical stimulation goes well, it is then combined with a movement task. This may be as simple as lifting a wrist or ankle or more complex such as cycling on a stationary bike, rowing on a rowing machine, grasping, or stepping in parallel bars or a body weight support treadmill system.

The length of each session will vary depending on the goals of the treatment. Time may be required to enable your muscles to tolerate longer sessions as the muscles may fatigue quickly. Sessions are usually done several times per week for several weeks to gain training benefits.

Your health provider will monitor your response to the treatment and inspect the skin for any redness or irritation after the treatment has ended. Once you have learned to use FES safely, you may be able to use it on your own.

Our bodies naturally use electrical signals as part of the nervous system. When we move, the brain generates and sends electrical impulses along the spinal cord and nerves to tell the muscles to move.

Spinal cord injury can interrupt this pathway, preventing electrical impulses from passing through the spinal cord to reach the muscles. However, if the nerves and muscles below the injury are not damaged, they can still respond to electrical signals.

A leg with two electrodes on the thigh for functional electrical stimulation execise therapy

FES electrodes are placed over nerves or over electrically-sensitive parts of the muscles below the SCI. The specific type of electrical stimulation used with FES can trigger the nerve cells of movement (motor neurons) to send signals that cause muscle movement. An intact peripheral nerve and healthy muscle tissue is required to enable the external source of electricity to facilitate the muscle contraction.

FES does not work for nerve injuries outside the spinal cord

FES can only be used for muscle weakness or paralysis caused by injuries to the spinal cord, but not injuries to the conus medullaris, cauda equina, or the nerves outside of the spinal cord. The nerve cells in these structures (called lower motor neurons) must to be intact for FES to work.

Like exercise, regular treatment with FES is usually needed to maintain the effects of the treatment. For people with complete injuries, when FES treatments are stopped, the treatment effects will usually go away over time. For people with incomplete injuries, the goal is for some carryover of strength and movement be retained after the treatment is stopped.

A cartoon pen and clipboard with check marks and x marksThere are some situations in which FES may be unsafe to use. This not a complete list, speak to a health provider about your health history and whether FES is safe for you.

FES should not be used in the following situations:

  • Near implanted medical devices like heart pacemakers
  • On areas of active cancer, or by people with bleeding disorders or other major medical conditions
  • On areas with blood clots, bleeding, damaged skin, infection, or poor circulation
  • By pregnant women
  • Electrodes should not be placed over the eyes, through the head, through the chest or abdomen, or on the front of the neck or genitals
  • By people with recent broken bones
  • By people with damage to the nerves or muscles near the area where FES is used

FES should be used with caution in the following situations:

FES is often used with the following conditions after SCI but should be monitored closely. Speak to your health provider for more information.

FES is generally well tolerated by people who can use it safely (see above for when FES may be unsafe). Serious medical complications from FES are rare. However, there are risks and side effects that should be discussed with a health provider before using FES.

More common risks and side effects of FES include:

Other less common risks and side effects of FES include:

  • Mild electrical burns near the electrodes
  • Skin breakdown near the electrodes
  • Fainting
  • Worsening of muscle spasms (spasticity)
  • Muscle and joint injuries, such as joint swelling or muscle strains
  • Broken bones
  • Mild electrical shocks (from improper use or faulty equipment)

In some cases, risks and side effects may be caused by improper use of the equipment. It is essential to learn to use the equipment from a health provider and to only use FES according to their direction and with the settings that they recommend.

For some people, side effects of FES may be stronger at first, but as their body gets used to FES with repeated treatments, their physical reactions may reduce over time.

Several studies have shown that FES helps to improve strength and fitness after SCI.

Strength

Cartoon of a flexed armStudies have shown that both FES arm exercise and FES cycling helps to maintain or improve strength after SCI. However, FES cycling may be more effective for maintaining strength after injury than improving strength that has already been lost. This is supported by moderate evidence from five studies.

For a review of what we mean by “strong”, “moderate”, and “weak” evidence, please see SCIRE Community Evidence Ratings.

Cardiovascular fitness

Heart with a barbellFifteen studies have looked at FES for improving many different aspects of fitness after SCI. Taken altogether, these studies provide weak evidence that FES training done at least 3 days per week for 2 months helps to improve many aspects of cardiovascular fitness after SCI.

Walking

A person walking between parallel bars with his wheelchair behind him. A heathcare provider on the side watches him.Studies show that FES improves walking speed and distance in people with both incomplete and complete SCI. Some of these studies also showed that regular use of FES carried over to improve walking even without FES. This is supported by weak evidence from eight studies.

The effects of FES treatment may also help to prevent complications of SCI like pressure sores, bone loss, spasticity, and orthostatic hypotension. These benefits may accompany gains in strength or fitness related to FES treatment.

Pressure sores

A woman lifting up her buttocks off her wheelchair by straightening her armsAlthough it is commonly thought that increased muscle bulk from FES will reduce the risk of pressure sores, there are not very many studies which have looked at whether this actually happens. One study provides weak evidence that FES cycling for 2 years reduced the number of pressure ulcers that occurred after SCI. Another study showed that regular FES cycling showed a trend towards reducing seat pressures.

Bone health

Silhouette of a fractured boneResearch studies show that FES cycling does not prevent bone loss after SCI (moderate evidence from two studies). However, it may help to increase bone density that has already been lost, although the evidence for this is conflicting (based on six studies). It is not clear whether any gains in bone density last long-term or if continued FES treatment is needed for them to be maintained.

For more information on bone density, read our article about Osteoporosis.

Spasticity

It is not clear what effects FES has on spasticity after SCI. There is conflicting evidence from three studies about whether FES cycling can help to reduce spasticity after SCI.

Click here for our article on Spasticity.

Orthostatic hypotension

Three studies provide moderate evidence that FES of the legs during a single change in position reduced orthostatic hypotension. However, this only shows that FES prevents orthostatic hypotension while it is applied, and further research is needed to look at what benefits this could have to people living with SCI.

Click here for our article on Orthrostatic Hypotension.

Overall, the research evidence suggests that FES is most likely effective for improving muscle strength after SCI. It may also have effects on fitness, walking skills, bone density, skin health, spasticity, and orthostatic hypotension, although more high quality research is needed to confirm. FES appears to be safe when used appropriately and is widely available in most rehabilitation settings. Discuss this treatment with your health providers to find out if it is a suitable treatment option for you.

For a review of what we mean by “strong”, “moderate”, and “weak” evidence, please see SCIRE Community Evidence Ratings.

Parts of this page have been adapted from the SCIRE Professional “Lower Limb”, “Upper Limb”, “Bone Health”, “Cardiovascular Health and Exercise”, “Orthostatic Hypotension”, “Pressure Ulcers”, and “Spasticity” chapters:

Lam T, Wolfe DL, Domingo A, Eng JJ, Sproule S (2014). Lower Limb Rehabilitation Following Spinal Cord Injury. In: Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0. Vancouver: p 1-74.
Available from: http://scireproject.com/evidence/lower-limb/

Connolly SJ, McIntyre A, Mehta, S, Foulon BL, Teasell RW. (2014). Upper Limb Rehabilitation Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0: p 1-77.
Available from: http://scireproject.com/evidence/upper-limb/

Craven C, Lynch CL, Eng JJ (2014). Bone Health Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0. Vancouver: p 1- 37.
Available from: https://scireproject.com/evidence/bone-health/

Warburton DER, Krassioukov A, Sproule S, Eng JJ (2014). Cardiovascular Health and Exercise Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0. Vancouver: p. 1-48.
Available from: https://scireproject.com/evidence/cardiovascular-health-and-exercise/

Krassioukov A, Wecht JM, Teasell RW, Eng JJ (2014). Orthostatic Hypotension Following Spinal Cord Injury. In: Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0. Vancouver: p. 1-26.
Available from: https://scireproject.com/evidence/orthostatic-hypotension/

Hsieh J, McIntyre A, Wolfe D, Lala D, Titus L, Campbell K, Teasell R. (2014). Pressure Ulcers Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0. 1-90.
Available from: https://scireproject.com/evidence/skin-integrity-and-pressure-injuries/

Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, McIntyre A, Townson AF, Short C, Mills P, Vu V, Benton B, Wolfe DL (2016). Spasticity Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Curt A, Mehta S, Sakakibara BM, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 6.0.
Available from: https://scireproject.com/evidence/spasticity/

 

Evidence for “Strength” is based on the following studies:

[1] Baldi JC, Jackson RD, Moraille R, and Mysiw WJ. Muscle atrophy is prevented in patients with acute spinal cord injury using functional electrical stimulation. Spinal Cord 1998;36:463-469.

[2] Scremin AM, Kurta L, Gentili A, Wiseman B, Perell K, Kunkel C, and Scremin OU. Increasing muscle mass in spinal cord injured persons with a functional electrical stimulation exercise program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:1531-1536.

[3] Crameri RM, Weston A, Climstein M, Davis GM, and Sutton JR. Effects of electrical stimulation-induced leg training on skeletal muscle adaptability in spinal cord injury. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2002;12:316-322.

[4] Gerrits HL, de Haan A, Sargeant AJ, Dallmeijer A, and Hopman MT. Altered contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle in people with spinal cord injury following functional electrical stimulated cycle training. Spinal Cord 2000;38:214-223.

[5] Needham-Shropshire BM, Broton JG, Cameron TL, Klose J. Improved motor function in tetraplegics following neuromuscular stimulation-assisted arm ergometry. J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20:49-55.

[6] Cameron T, Broton JG, Needham-Shropshire B, Klose KJ. An upper body exercise system incorporating resistive exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (nms). J Spinal Cord Med 1998;21:1-6.

Evidence for “Cardiovascular Fitness” based on:

[1] Berry HR, Kakebeeke TH, Donaldson N, Perret C, Hunt KJ. Energetics of paraplegic cycling: adaptation to 12 months of high volume training. Technology and Health Care 2012; 20: 73-84.

[2] Griffin L, Decker MJ, Hwang JY, Wang B, Kitchen K, Ding Z, et al. Functional electrical stimulation cycling improves body composition, metabolic and neural factors in persons with spinal cord injury. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2009;19(4):614-22.

[3] Zbogar D, Eng JJ, Krassioukov AV, Scott JM, Esch BT, Warburton DE. The effects of functional electrical stimulation leg cycle ergometry training on arterial compliance in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2008;46(11):722-6.

[4] Crameri RM, Cooper P, Sinclair PJ, Bryant G, Weston A. Effect of load during electrical stimulation training in spinal cord injury. Muscle Nerve 2004;29(1):104-11.

[5] Hjeltnes N, Aksnes AK, Birkeland KI, Johansen J, Lannem A, Wallberg-Henriksson H. Improved body composition after 8 wk of electrically stimulated leg cycling in tetraplegic patients. Am J Physiol 1997;273(3 Pt 2):R1072-9.

[6] Mohr T, Andersen JL, Biering-Sorensen F, Galbo H, Bangsbo J, Wagner A, et al. Long-term adaptation to electrically induced cycle training in severe spinal cord injured individuals. Spinal Cord 1997;35(1):1-16.

[7] Barstow TJ, Scremin AM, Mutton DL, Kunkel CF, Cagle TG, Whipp BJ. Changes in gas exchange kinetics with training in patients with spinal cord injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28(10):1221-8.

[8] Faghri PD, Glaser RM, Figoni SF. Functional electrical stimulation leg cycle ergometer exercise: training effects on cardiorespiratory responses of spinal cord injured subjects at rest and during submaximal exercise. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73(11):1085-93.

[9] Hooker SP, Figoni SF, Rodgers MM, Glaser RM, Mathews T, Suryaprasad AG, et al. Physiologic effects of electrical stimulation leg cycle exercise training in spinal cord injured persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73(5):470-6.

[10] Gerrits HL, de Haan A, Sargeant AJ, van Langen H, Hopman MT. Peripheral vascular changes after electrically stimulated cycle training in people with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82(6):832-9.

[11] Ragnarsson KT, Pollack S, O’Daniel W, Jr., Edgar R, Petrofsky J, Nash MS. Clinical evaluation of computerized functional electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury: a multicenter pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988;69(9):672-7.

[12] Taylor JA, Picard G, Widrick JJ. Aerobic capacity with hybrid FES rowing in spinal cord injury: comparison with arms-only exercise and preliminary findings with regular training. PM R 2011;3(9):817-24.

[13] Kahn NN, Feldman SP, Bauman WA. Lower-extremity functional electrical stimulation decreases platelet aggregation and blood coagulation in persons with chronic spinal cord injury: a pilot study. J Spinal Cord Med 2010;33(2): 150-8.

[14] Hakansson NA, Hull ML. Can the efficacy of electrically stimulating pedaling using a commercially available ergometer be improved by minimizing the muscle stress-time integral? Muscle Nerve 2012; 45:393-402.

Evidence for “Walking” is based on the following studies:

[1] Thrasher TA, Flett HM, and Popovic MR. Gait training regimen for incomplete spinal cord injury using functional electrical stimulation. Spinal Cord 2006;44:357-361.

[2] Ladouceur M, and Barbeau H. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted walking for persons with incomplete spinal injuries: changes in the kinematics and physiological cost of overground walking. Scand J Rehabil Med 2000a;32:72-79.

[3] Ladouceur M, and Barbeau H. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted walking for persons with incomplete spinal injuries: longitudinal changes in maximal overground walking speed. Scand J Rehabil Med 2000b;32:28-36.

[4] Wieler M, Stein RB, Ladouceur M, Whittaker M, Smith AW, Naaman S, Barbeau H, Bugaresti J, and Aimone E. Multicenter evaluation of electrical stimulation systems for walking. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:495-500.

[5] Klose KJ, Jacobs PL, Broton JG, Guest RS, Needham-Shropshire BM, Lebwohl N, Nash MS, and Green BA. Evaluation of a training program for persons with SCI paraplegia using the Parastep 1 ambulation system: part 1. Ambulation performance and anthropometric measures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78:789-793.

[6] Granat MH, Ferguson AC, Andrews BJ, and Delargy M. The role of functional electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of patients with incomplete spinal cord injury–observed benefits during gait studies. Paraplegia 1993;31:207-215.

[7] Stein RB, Belanger M, Wheeler G, Wieler M, Popovic DB, Prochazka A, and Davis LA. Electrical systems for improving locomotion after incomplete spinal cord injury: an assessment. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:954-959.

[8] Granat M, Keating JF, Smith AC, Delargy M, and Andrews BJ. The use of functional electrical stimulation to assist gait in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil 1992;14:93-97.

Evidence for “Bone health” is based on the following studies:

[1] Eser P, de Bruin ED, Telley I, Lechner HE, Knecht H, Stussi E. Effect of electrical stimulation-induced cycling on bone mineral density in spinal cord-injured patients. Eur J Clin Invest 2003;33:412-419.

[2] Lai CH, Chang WHS, Chan WP, Peng CW, Shen LK, Chen JJJ, Chen SC. Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling Exercise on Bone Mineral Density Loss in the Early Stages of Spinal Cord Injury. J Rehabil Med 2010; 42:150-154.

[3] Mohr T, Podenphant J, Biering-Sorensen F, Galbo H, Thamsborg G, Kjaer M. Increased bone mineral density after prolonged electrically induced cycle training of paralyzed limbs in spinal cord injured man. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61:22-25.

[4] Chen SC, Lai CH, Chan WP, Huang MH, Tsai HW, Chen JJ. Increases in bone mineral density after functional electrical stimulation cycling exercises in spinal cord injured patients. Disabil Rehabil 2005;27:1337-1341.

[5] Frotzler A, Coupaud S, Perret C, Kakebeeke TH, Hunt KJ, Donaldson Nde N, Eser P. High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury. Bone. 2008 Jul;43(1):169-76. Epub 2008 Mar 20.

[6] Pacy PJ, Hesp R, Halliday DA, Katz D, Cameron G, Reeve J. Muscle and bone in paraplegic patients, and the effect of functional electrical stimulation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1988;75:481-487.

[7]  Leeds EM, Klose J, Ganz W, Serafini A, Green BA. Bone mineral density after bicycle ergometry training. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1990;71:207-9.

[8] BeDell KK, Scremin AM, Perell KL, Kunkel CF. Effects of functional electrical stimulation-induced lower extremity cycling on bone density of spinal cord-injured patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1996;75:29-34.

Evidence for “Pressure Ulcers” is based on the following studies:

[1] Dolbow DR, Gorgey AS, Dolbow JD, Gater DR. Seat pressure changes after eight weeks of functional electrical stimulation cycling: a pilot study. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2013 Summer;19(3):222-8.

[2] Petrofsky JS. Functional electrical stimulation, a two year study. J Rehabil. 1992;58(3):29–34

Evidence for “Spasticity” is based on the following studies:

[1] Kapadia N, Masani K, Craven B, et al. A randomized trial of functional electrical stimulation for walking in incomplete spinal cord injury: Effects on walking competency. J Spinal Cord Med 2014;37:511-24.

[2] Manella K & Field-Fote E. Modulatory effects of locomotor training on extensor spasticity in individuals with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2013;31:633-46.

[3] Ralston K, Harvey L, Batty J, et al. Functional electrical stimulation cycling has no clear effect on urine output, lower limb swelling, and spasticity in people with spinal cord injury: A randomised cross-over trial. J Physiother 2013;59:237-43.

[4] Kuhn D, Leichtfried V, Schobersberger W. Four weeks of functional electrical stimulated cycling after spinal cord injury: a clinical cohort study. Inter J Rehabil Res 2014;37:243-50.

[5] Mazzoleni S, Stampacchia G, Gerini A, Tombini T, Carrozza M. FES-cycling training in spinal cord injured patients. Eng Med Biol Soc 2013:5339-41.

[6] Sadowsky C, Hammond E, Strohl A, et al. Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2013;36:623-31.

[7] Reichenfelser W, Hackl H, Hufgard J, Kastner J, Gstaltner K, Gföhler M. Monitoring of spasticity and functional ability in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury with a functional electrical stimulation cycling system. J Rehabil Med 2012;44:444-9.

[8] Krause P, Szecsi J, Straube A. Changes in spastic muscle tone increase in patients with spinal cord injury using functional electrical stimulation and passive leg movements. Clin Rehabil 2008;22:627-34.

[9] Mirbagheri M, Ladouceur M, Barbeau H, Kearney R. The effects of long-term FES-assisted walking on intrinsic and reflex dynamic stiffness in spastic spinal-cord-injured

[10] Granat M, Ferguson A, Andrews B, Delargy M. The role of functional electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of patients with incomplete spinal cord injury–observed benefits during gait studies. Paraplegia 1993;31:207-15.

[11] Thoumie P, Le C, Beillot J, Dassonville J, Chevalier T, Perrouin-Verbe B et al. Restoration of functional gait in paraplegic patients with the RGO-II hybrid orthosis. A multicenter controlled study. II: Physiological evaluation. Paraplegia 1995;33:654-9.

Evidence for “Orthostatic Hypotension” is based on the following studies:

[1] Faghri PD, Yount J. Electrically induced and voluntary activation of physiologic muscle pump: a comparison between spinal cord-injured and able-bodied individuals. Clin Rehabil 2002;16:878-885.

[2] Elokda AS, Nielsen DH, Shields RK. Effect of functional neuromuscular stimulation on postural related orthostatic stress in individuals with acute spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 2000;37:535-542.

[3] Sampson EE, Burnham RS, Andrews BJ. Functional electrical stimulation effect on orthostatic hypotension after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 139-143.

Other references:

Electrophysical Agents – Contraindications And Precautions: An Evidence-Based Approach To Clinical Decision Making In Physical Therapy. Physiother Can. 2010 Fall;62(5):1-80.

Gibbons RS, Shave RE, Gall A, Andrews BJ. FES-rowing in tetraplegia: a preliminary report. Spinal Cord. 2014 Dec;52(12):880-6.

Martin R, Sadowsky C, Obst K, Meyer B, McDonald J. Functional electrical stimulation in spinal cord injury: from theory to practice. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2012 Winter;18(1):28-33.

Warms CA, Backus D, Rajan S, Bombardier CH, Schomer KG, Burns SP. Adverse events in cardiovascular-related training programs in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Spinal Cord Med. 2014 Nov;37(6):672-92.

Image credits

  1. E-Stim Therapy ©Rankn Jordan, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  2. Functional electrical stimulation ©MilosRPopovic, CC BY-SA 4.0
  3. Image by SCIRE Community Team
  4. Checklist ©lastspark,CC BY 3.0 US
  5. Muscle © Smalllike, CC BY 3.0 US
  6. cardio ©emma Mitchell, CC BY 3.0 US
  7. Image by SCIRE Team.
  8. Image by SCIRE Team.
  9. fracture ©fahmionline, CC BY 3.0 US

 

Disclaimer: This document does not provide medical advice. This information is provided for educational purposes only. Consult a qualified health professional for further information or specific medical advice. The SCIRE Project, its partners and collaborators disclaim any liability to any party for any loss or damage by errors or omissions in this publication.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

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Author: SCIRE Community Team | Reviewer: Amrit Dhaliwal | Published: 27 July 2017 | Updated: ~

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-drug treatment option for pain and spasticity. This page outlines basic information about TENS and its use after spinal cord injury (SCI).

Key Points

  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a common form of electrotherapy typically used to treat pain.
  • TENS is delivered using electrotherapy machines that send pulsed electrical currents to the body through electrodes placed on the skin’s surface.
  • TENS is a relatively safe, non-invasive, and well-tolerated treatment option for pain and spasticity after SCI.
  • There is moderate evidence that TENS works for neuropathic pain after SCI and strong evidence that TENS works for spasticity after SCI. TENS has not been studied for musculoskeletal pain after SCI, but appears to work for this type of pain in other populations.
Handheld TENS unit attached by electrical wires to four self-adhesive electrodes

TENS machine and electrodes.1

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, pronounced ‘tens’) is a common electrotherapy primarily used to treat pain. TENS is a type of electrical stimulation that is delivered using electrical therapy machines connected to electrodes placed on the skin’s surface.

For people with SCI, TENS is used as a treatment option for musculoskeletal pain, neuropathic pain, and spasticity.

It is important to speak with a health provider before using TENS to make sure it is safe and suitable for you and to learn how to use the equipment correctly.

Most machines used for TENS are portable battery-powered devices with adjustable settings like intensity, frequency, and pulse duration. Changing the settings can provide different types of stimulation. The most common types of stimulation are:

  • Conventional TENS uses high frequency stimulation to produce sensations of ‘tingling’ or ‘pins and needles’ in areas with normal sensation.
  • Acupuncture-like TENS uses low frequency stimulation which may or may not cause muscle twitches in the area.
Electrodes placed in pairs along the lower back of a person

Electrodes placed on the skin.2

The machine is connected to a set of electrodes by electrical wires (leads). The electrodes may be self-adhesive or applied with conductive gel onto clean, intact skin. Electrodes may be placed near the area of your symptoms or in other areas directed by your health provider.

Once the electrodes and machine have been set up and connected, the intensity is then slowly turned up until it feels ‘strong, but comfortable’ or reaches a set intensity. It should not cause any pain or discomfort.

Your health provider will determine how long the stimulation is used for based on the goals of the treatment. After the TENS machine has been safely turned off and the electrodes have been removed, the skin is inspected for any redness or irritation.

Using TENS below the level of injury

TENS should be used cautiously in areas with reduced or absent sensation because it can cause electrical burns, skin irritation, or autonomic reactions if the person cannot feel that the intensity is too strong.

However, TENS can be used below the level of injury if certain precautions are taken. It should be tried only under the supervision of a health provider. It should be tested in an area of sensation to ensure that there are no harmful reactions and monitored carefully during use.

Cartoon lightning boltsElectrical signals are a natural part of how the nervous system works. Signals that are sent along the nerves are relayed in part as electrical impulses. Because the nerves are naturally susceptible to electrical signals, they can be stimulated by electrical therapies like TENS.

TENS stimulates nerve fibres involved in touch. This might work to treat pain and spasticity in several ways:

  • TENS may reduce pain by blocking pain signals, so you can feel other sensations instead. This works in the same way as when you rub the skin over a sore area of your body. The unusual ‘tingling’ feeling of the TENS stimulation is sent to the brain instead of pain signals.
  • TENS may cause the release of endorphins within the nervous system that may help to reduce pain.
  • TENS may affect spasticity by making it less likely that the nerve cells to the muscles (motor neurons) will fire.
A pacemaker

TENS can interfere with the function of cardiac pacemakers.4

Although there are few reported medical complications caused by using TENS devices, there are many situations in which it could be unsafe to use. The following conditions are some possible restrictions on the use of TENS. Consult a health provider for further safety information.

TENS should not be used in the following situations:

  • Near the neck or head of people who have had seizures
  • Near implanted medical devices like cardiac pacemakers
  • On the abdomen or low back of pregnant women (except during labor and delivery)
  • On areas of active cancer (except under medical supervision in palliative care)
  • On areas with blood clots, bleeding, or infection
  • On the chest of people with major heart problems
  • By people who are unable to follow instructions or provide accurate feedback
  • Electrodes should not be placed over the eyes, through the head, through the chest, on the front of the neck or genitals, or over damaged skin or open wounds

TENS should be used with caution in the following situations:

Learn more in our article on Autonomic Dysreflexia. 

TENS is considered to be a relatively safe and well-tolerated treatment for people who can use it safely (see above for restrictions on using TENS). Serious medical complications from using TENS are rare. However, there are risks and side effects that should be discussed with a health provider before using TENS.

The most common risks and side effects of TENS include:

  • Skin discomfort, irritation, or redness near the electrodes
  • Allergy to the conductive gel
  • Mild electrical burns near the electrodes
  • An increase in pain or discomfort
  • Mild electrical shocks (from improper use or faulty equipment)

Other less common risks and side effects of TENS include:

In some cases, risks and side effects may be caused by improper use of the equipment. For this reason, it is essential to learn to use the equipment from a health provider and to only use TENS according to their direction.

TENS for nerve pain after SCI

Five studies have tested TENS as a treatment for neuropathic pain after SCI, although only three of these studies were suitable to draw conclusions from. These studies provide moderate evidence that TENS is effective for treating neuropathic pain after SCI.

For a review of what we mean by “strong”, “moderate”, and “weak” evidence, please see SCIRE Community Evidence Ratings.

TENS for muscle, bone, and joint pain after SCI

Research has not explored whether TENS is effective for treating musculoskeletal pain after SCI. However, because this type of pain is experienced in areas of normal sensation (above the level of injury), studies done outside of SCI might help provide some guidance about how well this treatment works.

A health provider using TENS on a leg of a person who is lying down on a bed

A health provider using TENS on a person’s leg.5

Reviews of research studies done in conditions like knee arthritis, general acute pain, and chronic low back pain have shown that TENS may be effective for treating musculoskeletal pain from these conditions. However, much of the research included in these reviews (and for TENS generally) is low quality, making it hard to make strong conclusions about whether TENS works for musculoskeletal pain.

Read more in our article, Pain After Spinal Cord Injury.

TENS for spasticity after SCI

Based on six studies that have tested TENS as a treatment for spasticity after SCI, there is strong evidence that an ongoing program of TENS reduces spasticity after SCI. These studies also show that TENS reduces spasticity even after a single session; although the effects are greater when TENS is used as part of an ongoing program.

Overall, there is moderate evidence that TENS works for neuropathic pain after SCI and strong evidence that TENS works for spasticity after SCI. TENS has not been studied for musculoskeletal pain after SCI, but appears to work for this type of pain in other populations.

TENS appears to be safe to use for most people and is widely available as a low cost treatment option. Until more research is done, it is best to discuss this treatment with your health providers to find out more about if it is a suitable treatment option for you.

For a review of what we mean by “strong”, “moderate”, and “weak” evidence, please see SCIRE Community Evidence Ratings.

This page has been adapted from SCIRE Project (Professional) “Pain Management” and “Spasticity” chapters:

Mehta S, Teasell RW, Loh E, Short C, Wolfe DL, Hsieh JTC (2014). Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0: p 1-79.

Available from: https://scireproject.com/evidence/rehabilitation-evidence/pain-management/

Hsieh JTC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Short C, Connolly SJ, Mehta S, Curt A, Foulon BL, (2012). Spasticity Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan V, Mehta S, Sakakibara BM, Boily K, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 4.0.

Available from: https://scireproject.com/evidence/rehabilitation-evidence/spasticity/

 

Evidence for “TENS for nerve pain after SCI” is based on the following studies:

[1] Davis R, Lentini R. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation for treatment of pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 1975;4:100-101.

[2] Bi X, Lv H, Chen BL, Li X, Wang XQ. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain in patients with spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial. J Phys Ther Sci 2015;27(1):23-5.

[3] Celik EC, Erhan B, Gunduz B, Lakse E. The effect of low-frequency TENS in the treatment of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2013 Apr;51(4):334-7.

[4] Norrbrink C. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of spinal cord injury neuropathic pain. J Rehab Res Dev 2009;46:85-93.

[5] Ozkul C, Kilinc M, Yildirim SA, Topcuoglu EY, Akyuz M. Effects of visual illusion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury: A randomised controlled cross-over trial. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2015;28:709–19.

Evidence for “TENS for muscle, bone, and joint pain after SCI” is based on the following studies:

[1] Osiri M, Welch V, Brosseau L, Shea B, McGowan J, Tugwell P, Wells G. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for knee osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD002823.

[2] Johnson MI, Paley CA, Howe TE, Sluka KA. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for acute pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 15;(6):CD006142.

[3] Jauregui JJ, Cherian JJ, Gwam CU, Chughtai M, Mistry JB, Elmallah RK, Harwin SF, Bhave A, Mont MA. A Meta-Analysis of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Chronic Low Back Pain. Surg Technol Int. 2016 Apr;28:296-302.

Evidence for “TENS for spasticity after SCI” is based on the following studies:

[1] Oo W. Efficacy of addition of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to standardized physical therapy in subacute spinal spasticity: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2014;95:2013-20.

[2] Aydin G, Tomruk S, Keles I, Demir SO, Orkun S. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus baclofen in spasticity: clinical and electrophysiologic comparison. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84(8):584-592.

[3] Possover M, Schurch B, Henle KP. New strategies of pelvic nerves stimulation for recovery of pelvic visceral functions and locomotion in paraplegics. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010 Nov;29(8).

[4] Goulet C, Arsenault AB, Bourbonnais D, Laramee MT, Lepage Y. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on H-reflex and spinal spasticity. Scand J Rehabil Med 1996;28(3):169-176.

[5] Chung BP, Cheng, BK. Immediate effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Clinical Rehabilitation, 2010;24:202-210.

[6] van der Salm A, Veltink PH, Ijzerman MJ, Groothuis-Oudshoorn KC, Nene AV, Hermens HJ. Comparison of electric stimulation methods for reduction of triceps surae spasticity in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87(2):222-228.

Other references:

Johnson M. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulations (TENS). In: Watson T (Ed). Electrotherapy: Evidence-based Practice Twelfth edition. Edinburgh:Churchill Livingstone; 2008:253-296.

Electrophysical Agents – Contraindications And Precautions: An Evidence-Based Approach To Clinical Decision Making In Physical Therapy. Physiother Can. 2010 Fall;62(5):1-80.*

Cheing GL, Hui-Chan CW. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: Nonparallel antinociceptive effects on chronic clinical pain and acute experimental pain. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1999;80:305-12.

Jones I, Johnson MI. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain 2009; 9(4):130-135.

Somers DL, Clemente FR. The relationship between dorsal horn neurotransmitter content and allodynia in neuropathic rats treated with high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84(11):1575-1583.

Johnson M. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation: Mechanisms, Clinical Application and Evidence. Rev Pain. 2007 Aug;1(1):7-11.

Image credits:

  1. Tens ©Yeza, CC BY-SA 4.0
  2. Electrical Muscle stimulation ©Wisser68, CC BY-SA 3.0
  3. Electricity ©Artnadhifa, CC BY 3.0 US
  4. St Jude Medical pacemaker with ruler ©Steven Fruitsmaak, CC BY 3.0
  5. Day 2 Outpatient PT 013 ©Roger Mommaerts, CC BY-SA 2.0

 

Disclaimer: This document does not provide medical advice. This information is provided for educational purposes only. Consult a qualified health professional for further information or specific medical advice. The SCIRE Project, its partners and collaborators disclaim any liability to any party for any loss or damage by errors or omissions in this publication.